Glossary of IT Infrastructure Library Terms (ITIL®)Glossary of Terms for the IT Infrastructure Library
Where the fault cannot be resolved by first-line support or requires time to be resolved or local attendance.
The process of managing a defined level of security on information and services.
The Security Manager is the role that is responsible for the Security Management process in the Service Provider organization. The person is responsible for fulfilling the security demands as specified in the SLA, either directly or through delegation by the Service Level Manager. The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.
The Security Officer is responsible for assessing the business risks and setting the security policy. As such, this role is the counterpart of the Security Manager and resides in the customer's business organization. The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.
Occurs when the disk read/write heads are not positioned on the required track. It describes the elapsed time taken to move heads to the right track.
segregation of duties
Separation of the management or execution of certain duties or of areas of responsibility is required in order to prevent and reduce opportunities for unauthorized modification or misuse of data or service.
A decision to bear the losses that could result from a disruption to the business as opposed to taking insurance cover on the Risk.
One or more IT systems which enable a business process.
The actual Service Levels delivered by the IT organization to a customer within a defined life span.
Service Catalogue Written statement of IT services, default levels and options.
Service Dependency Modeling
Technique used to gain insight in the interdependency between an IT service and the Configuration Items that make up that service.
The single point of contact within the IT organization for users of IT services.
The expression of an aspect of a service in definitive and quantifiable terms.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Written agreement between a Service Provider and the customer(s) that documents agreed Service Levels for a service.
Service Level Management (SLM)
The process of defining, agreeing, documenting and managing the levels of customer IT service, that are required and cost justified.
Management of Services to meet the customer's requirements.
Third-party organization supplying services or products to customers.
Service quality plan
The written plan and specification of internal targets designed to guarantee the agreed Service Levels.
Every incident not being a failure in the IT Infrastructure.
The deliverables of the IT services organization as perceived by the customers; the services do not consist merely of making computer resources available for customers to use.
Simple code assigned to problems and known errors, indicating the seriousness of their effect on the Quality of Service. It is the major means of assigning priority for resolution.
Using a program to simulate computer processing by describing in detail the path of a job or transaction. It can give extremely accurate results. Unfortunately, it demands a great deal of time and effort from the modeler. It is most beneficial in extremely large or time-critical systems where the margin for error is very small.
The situation in a virtual memory system when the operating system has detected that a page of code or data was due to be reused, i.e., it is on a list of "free" pages, but it is still actually in memory. It is now rescued and put back into service.
Software Configuration Item (SCI)
As "Configuration Item", excluding hardware and services.
Software used to support the application such as operating system, database management system, development tools, compilers, and application software.
A controlled collection of SCIs designated to keep those with like status and type together and segregated from unlike, to aid in development, operation and maintenance.
software work unit
Software work is a generic term devised to represent a common base on which all calculations for workload usage and IT resource capacity are then based. A unit of software work for I/O type equipment equals the number of bytes transferred; and for central processors, it is based on the product of power and CPU time.
solid state devices
Memory devices that are made to appear as if they are disk devices. The advantages of such devices are that the service times are much faster than real disks since there is no seek time or latency. The main disadvantage is that they are much more expensive.
Specifies in detail what the customer wants (external) and what consequences this has for the Service Provider (internal) such as required resources and skills.
Any individual or group who has an interest, or "stake", in the IT service organization of a CSIP.
A predetermined calculation of how many costs should be under specified working conditions. It is built up from an assessment of the value of cost elements and correlates technical specifications and the quantification of materials, labor and other costs to the prices and/or wages expected to apply during the period in which the standard cost is intended to be used. Its main purposes are to provide bases for control through variance accounting, for the valuation of work in progress and for fixing selling prices.
A technique which uses standards for costs and revenues for the purposes of control through variance analysis.
Arrangements to have available assets that have been identified as replacements should primary assets be unavailable following a business disruption. Typically, these include accommodation, IT systems and networks, telecommunications and sometimes people.
A defined measurement unit that is used for storage type equipment to measure usage. The unit value equals the number of bytes stored.
Strategic Alignment Objectives Model (SAOM)
Relation diagram depicting the relation between a business function and its business drivers and the technology with the technology characteristics. The SAOM is a high-level tool that can help IT services organizations to align their SLAs, OLAs and acceptance criteria for new technology with the business value they deliver.
In some organizations it is common to use "expert" users (commonly known as super or expert users) to deal with firstline support problems and queries. This is typically in specific application areas, or geographical locations, where there is not the requirement for full-time support staff. This valuable resource, however, needs to be carefully coordinated and utilized.
Surcharging is charging business users a premium rate for using resources at peak times.
The reaction of the operating system to insufficient real memory: swapping occurs when too many tasks are perceived to be competing for limited resources. It is the physical movement of an entire task (e.g., all real memory pages of an address space may be moved at one time from main storage to auxiliary storage).
An integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities and people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective.