Glossary of IT Infrastructure Library Terms (ITIL®)Glossary of Terms for the IT Infrastructure Library
Typically, those costs applying to the physical (substantial) assets of the organization. Traditionally this was the accommodation and machinery necessary to produce the enterprise's product. Capital Costs are the purchase or major enhancement of fixed assets, for example, computer equipment (building and plant) and are often also referred to as "one-off" costs.
capital investment appraisal
The process of evaluating proposed investment in specific fixed assets and the benefits to be obtained from their acquisition. The techniques used in the evaluation can be summarized as non-discounting methods (i.e., simple payback), return on capital employed and discounted cashflow methods (i.e., yield, net present value and discounted payback).
The process of identifying major expenditure as Capital, whether there is a substantial asset or not, to reduce the impact on the current financial year of such expenditure. The most common item for this to be applied to is software, whether developed in-house or purchased.
Classification of a group of Configuration Items, change documents or problems.
The addition, modification or removal of approved, supported or baselined hardware, network, software, application, environment, system, desktop build or associated documentation.
Change Advisory Board CAB)
A group of people who can give expert advice to Change Management on the implementation of changes. This board is likely to be made up of representatives from all areas within IT and representatives from business units.
A group that is given the authority to approve change, e.g., by the Project Board. Sometimes referred to as the Configuration Board.
The procedure to ensure that all changes are controlled, including the submission, analysis, decision-making, approval, implementation and post-implementation of the change.
Request for Change, change control form, change order, change record.
Auditable information that records, for example, what was done, when it was done, by whom and why.
A log of Requests For Change raised during the project, showing information on each change, its evaluation, what decisions have been made and its current status, e.g., Raised, Reviewed, Approved, Implemented, Closed.
Process of controlling changes to the infrastructure or any aspect of services, in a controlled manner, enabling approved changes with minimum disruption.
A record containing details of which CIs are affected by an authorized change (planned or implemented) and how.
The process of establishing charges in respect of business units, and raising the relevant invoices for recovery from customers.
Process of formally grouping Configuration Items by type, e.g., software, hardware, documentation, environment, application. Process of formally identifying changes by type e.g., project scope change request, validation change request, infrastructure change request. Process of formally identifying incidents, problems and known errors by origin, symptoms and cause.
When the customer is satisfied that an incident has been resolved.
See "gradual recovery".
command, control and communications
The processes by which an organization retains overall coordination of its recovery effort during invocation of business recovery plans.
Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE)
A software tool for Programrs. It provides help in the planning, analysis, design and documentation of computer software.
Configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time, which captures both the structure and details of the product or system, and enables that product or system to be rebuilt at a later date.
A snapshot or a position which is recorded. Although the position may be updated later, the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reference of the original state and as a comparison against the current position (PRINCE2).
See also "baseline".
Activities comprising the control of changes to Configuration Items after formally establishing its configuration documents. It includes the evaluation, coordination, approval or rejection of changes. The implementation of changes includes changes, deviations and waivers that impact on the configuration.
Documents that define requirements, system design, build, production, and verification for a Configuration Item.
Activities that determine the product structure, the selection of Configuration Items, and the documentation of the Configuration Item's physical and functional characteristics including interfaces and subsequent changes. It includes the allocation of identification characters or numbers to the Configuration Items and their documents. It also includes the unique numbering of Configuration control forms associated with changes and problems.
Configuration Item (CI)
Component of an infrastructure - or an item, such as a Request for Change, associated with an infrastructure - which is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management. CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type - from an entire system (including all hardware, software and documentation) to a single module or a minor hardware component.
The process of identifying and defining the Configuration Items in a system, recording and reporting the status of Configuration Items and Requests For Change, and verifying the completeness and correctness of Configuration Items.
Configuration Management Database(CMDB)
A database which contains all relevant details of each CI and details of the important relationships between CIs.
Configuration Management plan
Document setting out the organization and procedures for the Configuration Management of a specific product, project, system, support group or service.
Configuration Management Tool CM Tool)
A software product providing automatic support for change, Configuration or version control.
A hierarchy of all the CIs that comprise a configuration.
Planning to address unwanted occurrences that may happen at a later time. Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to planning for the recovery of IT systems rather than entire business processes.
Continuous Service Improvement Program
An ongoing formal Program undertaken within an organization to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or work process.
The amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred on, or attributable to, a specific activity or business unit.
Ensuring that there is a proper balance between the Quality of Service on the one side and expenditure on the other. Any investment that increases the costs of providing IT services should always result in enhancement to service quality or quantity.
All the procedures, tasks and deliverables that are needed to fulfill an organization's costing and charging requirements.
cost of failure
A technique used to evaluate and measure the cost of failed actions and activities. It can be measured as a total within a period or an average per failure. An example would be "the cost of failed changes per month" or "the average cost of a failed change".
In the context of CSBC the cost unit is a functional cost unit which establishes standard cost per workload element of activity, based on calculated activity ratios converted to cost ratios.
The process of identifying the costs of the business and of breaking them down and relating them to the various activities of the organization.
A check or restraint on the service designed to enhance security by reducing the risk of an attack (by reducing either the threat or the vulnerability), reducing the impact of an attack, detecting the occurrence of an attack and/or assisting in the recovery from an attack.
The UK Government's Risk Analysis and Management Method. Further information is available from www.insight.co.uk/cramm/.
The processes by which an organization manages the wider impact of a disaster, such as adverse media coverage.
Critical Success Factor (CSF)
A measure of success or maturity of a project or process. It can be a state, a deliverable or a milestone. An example of a CSF would be "the production of an overall technology strategy".
Recipient of the service; usually the customer management has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need.